Home server setup

These are notes I’ve gathered setting up my Raspberry Pi home server, together with some apps and services that I use on it. I’m putting it here (instead of the jumble of Markdown files whence it came) for my own personal use; it’s not intended to be useful to anyone else. That said, there might be snippets that are useful if some search engine led you here trying to figure out how to secure your SSH or something…

# Installation

This assumes that the Raspberry Pi (RPi from here on) will be connected over a wired connection. If it will only connect over WiFi, there are some additional instruction here.

  1. Get an Ubuntu image from here.
  2. Install sudo apt install rpi-imager.
  3. Use rpi-imager to write the downloaded .img.xz file to the microSD card.
  4. It will give some options about setting up default users etc, which you can use and skip the below.
  5. Insert into the Raspberry Pi and boot it.

# First login

Log in as ubuntu (unless you created a different user and login method already):

ssh ubuntu@192.168.whatever.whatever  # set ip address to whatever it is
# password is ubuntu

And create a new user:

useradd -m -U -s /bin/bash -G sudo your-username
passwd your-username

Change host name by editing /etc/hostname to contain:


Restart, then log in as new user:

ssh username@box.local  # your network might not do the .local thing nicely

Set vim as editor:

sudo update-alternatives --config editor

Stop SSH login message:

touch ~/.hushlogin

Set hostname. Add the following to /etc/hosts (or edit if there’s a similar line there): box.local box

# Firewall

First open the new port in UFW!

# use the appropriate subnet mask
sudo ufw allow from to any port 22 proto tcp comment "SSH"
sudo ufw enable

# check your work
sudo ufw status

# SSH login

Do these steps on your local machine (the place from where you log into the RPi). Put in ~/.ssh/config:

Host box
  HostName 192.168.whatever.whatever
  User username

Copy SSH key if needed:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@ip_address

Make sure you can now log in:

ssh box

# Securing SSH

Following this and this. Make the following changes to /etc/ssh/sshd_config. You can’t just copy-paste these in, as they might be set already, so search through and change/uncomment them one by one.

Note the changed port number. This is mostly to reduce the number of failed attempted logins you see in your logs. By setting this to a random number, you’ll sleep more easily knowing nobody is getting in!

PermitRootLogin no
PermitEmptyPasswords no
PasswordAuthentication no
X11Forwarding no
# MaxAuthTries 1  # rather use Fail2Ban

# not used yet
# ClientAliveInterval 300
# ClientAliveCountMax 2

# this number is an example, choose your own!
Port 38473

NB: Make up your own port number above, and then make sure to open it in UFW!

# Replace the number with whatever you chose
sudo ufw allow from to any port 38473 proto tcp comment "SSH"


sudo systemctl restart ssh sshd

You can use these commands to keep an eye on SSHD logs:

tail -n 50 /var/log/auth.log | grep sshd

# follow
tail -f -n 10 /var/log/auth.log | grep sshd

# Fail2Ban

A nifty tool to make your SSH logs less annoying and keep unwanted script-kiddes from messing around with your SSH. Following this and the main docs. Reference for adding “Failed publickey”.

sudo apt install fail2ban

Don’t edit the main conf. Rather edit /etc/fail2ban/jail.local:

bantime = 1d  # can increase this later
findtime = 1d # can increase this later
maxretry = 5  # can lower this once you're sure you're good!
failregex = %(known/failregex)s
            ^Failed publickey for <F-USER>.+</F-USER> from <HOST>
             ^Connection closed by authenticating user <F-USER>.+</F-USER> <HOST> port \d+ \[preauth\]


systemctl start fail2ban
systemctl enable fail2ban

Useful commands:

# see logs
less /var/log/fail2ban.log

# status
sudo fail2ban-client status sshd

# admin
sudo fail2ban-client restart
# ... reload, start, stop

# unban
sudo fail2ban-client set sshd unbanip 192.168.whatever.whatever

# Useful systemd stuff

Systemctl commands:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload                       # whenever change config file
sudo systemctl start/stop/restart calibre-flask

Allow restart systemctl services without sudo. Create a new sudoers file with:

sudo visudo -f /etc/sudoers.d/nopassword

And add the line:

your-username ALL = NOPASSWD: /bin/systemctl restart service-name

# X forwarding

Haven’t had much success with this yet, but pretty cool forward full X windows over SSH!

ssh -X pc qgis

# or
ssh -X pc

# Disable LEDs

The flashing lights on the RPi, which don’t look great in a classy living room. Source. First try:

echo 0 | sudo tee /sys/class/leds/led1/brightness > /dev/null

If it works then sudo crontab -e:

@reboot echo 0 | sudo tee /sys/class/leds/led0/brightness > /dev/null
@reboot echo 0 | sudo tee /sys/class/leds/led1/brightness > /dev/null

# Nginx basics

Source. Install:

sudo apt install nginx

Delete default site:

sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
# template still at /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

Remember need to sudo service nginx restart each time change config. Create file (e.g.) /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/foo.rdrn.me:

server {
    server_name foo.rdrn.me;

    # to pass eg a Flask app server
    location / {

# Certbot

Source. Install:

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-nginx

Open firewall:

sudo ufw allow 'Nginx Full'
sudo ufw status

Get certificate and automatically update Nginx config:

sudo certbot --nginx -d books.rdrn.me

Check auto-renew:

sudo certbot renew --dry-run

Go and check the nginx config and it should have been updated by Certbot.

# Calibre-Flask

My home-made web frontend for the Calibre ebook library: calibre-flask.


Install some packages:

sudo apt install git python3-venv python3-pip nginx

# https://stackoverflow.com/a/50583153
sudo apt install libopenjp2-7 libtiff5 libatlas-base-dev

Follow instructions at the repo.

Temporarily sudo ufw allow 5000 for testing.

Place nginx file at /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/books.rdrn.me then sudo service nginx restart. Start server with gunicorn app.app:app and should be available at port 80.

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-nginx
sudo certbot --nginx -d books.rdrn.me

# Nextcloud setup

I do it with Nginx (rather than Apacha, which is more typical).

Source. Empty deleted files sooner: source. Can’t view recycle bin: source. Change data directory: source.

PHP setup


sudo apt install -y php-fpm php-curl php-cli php-mysql php-gd php-common php-xml php-json php-intl php-pear php-imagick php-dev php-common php-mbstring php-zip php-soap php-bz2 php-bcmath php-gmp redis-server php-redis

Edit configs /etc/php/8.1/fpm/php.ini and /etc/php/8.1/cli/php.ini with the following two lines:

date.timezone = Europe/London
memory_limit = 512M  # only in fpm/php.ini

Edit /etc/php/7.4/fpm/pool.d/www.conf and uncomment:

env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
env[TMP] = /tmp
env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
env[TEMP] = /tmp


sudo systemctl restart php8.1-fpm
sudo systemctl enable php8.1-fpm

Check status:

ss -xa | grep php
systemctl status php8.1-fpm



sudo apt install mariadb-server -y
sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo systemctl enable mariadb


sudo mysql_secure_installation
# yes to all

Set up NextCloud user:

sudo mysql -u root -p

create database nextcloud;
create user nextclouduser@localhost identified by 'password-here';
grant all privileges on nextcloud.* to nextclouduser@localhost identified by 'password-here';
flush privileges;

Let’s Encrypt

Only if you want it publicly facing (I don’t currently do this) and you want a proper HTTPS site.


sudo apt install certbot -y


sudo systemctl stop nginx
sudo certbot certonly --standalone -d domain.com

Actual NextCloud installation

Install (or get beta from here):

sudo apt install wget unzip zip -y
cd /var/www/
sudo wget -q https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/latest.zip
sudo unzip -qq latest.zip
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud

NB: Only do this step if you get a 3rdparty error when trying to load the web page:

cd /var/www/nextcloud
rm -r 3rdpart
git clone https://github.com/nextcloud/3rdparty.git

Make data directory:

sudo mkdir /opt/nextcloud/
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /opt/nextcloud/

Nextcloud Nginx setup


sudo apt update
sudo apt install nginx -y

Configure Nginx site: /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/domain.com. Additional source.

upstream php-handler {
    server unix:/var/run/php/php8.1-fpm.sock;

server {
    listen 8080;
    listen [::]:8080;
    server_name box.local;
    fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;
    root /var/www/nextcloud;
    add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always;
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always;
    add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always;
    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always;
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always;
    add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always;
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always;

    location = /.well-known/carddav {
        return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav;
    location = /.well-known/caldav {
        return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav;

    client_max_body_size 512M;
    fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;
    gzip on;
    gzip_vary on;
    gzip_comp_level 4;
    gzip_min_length 256;
    gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth;
    gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy;

    location / {
    rewrite ^ /index.php;

    location ~ ^\/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)\/ {
        deny all;
    location ~ ^\/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
        deny all;

    location ~ ^\/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core\/ajax\/update|status|ocs\/v[12]|updater\/.+|oc[ms]-provider\/.+)\.php(?:$|\/) {
        fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+?\.php)(\/.*|)$;
        set $path_info $fastcgi_path_info;
        try_files $fastcgi_script_name =404;
        include fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $path_info;
        fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true;
        fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;
        fastcgi_pass php-handler;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        fastcgi_request_buffering off;

    location ~ ^\/(?:updater|oc[ms]-provider)(?:$|\/) {
        try_files $uri/ =404;
        index index.php;

    location ~ \.(?:css|js|woff2?|svg|gif|map)$ {
        try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri;
        add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=15778463";
        add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000;" always;
        add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always;
        add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always;
        add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always;
        add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always;
        add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always;
        add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always;
        add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always;
        access_log off;

    location ~ \.(?:png|html|ttf|ico|jpg|jpeg|bcmap)$ {
        try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri;
        access_log off;

Start it up:

systemctl restart nginx
systemctl restart php7.4-fpm

Allow nextcloud through the firewall

# might want to add subnet mask, comment, proto to this
sudo ufw allow 8080

Nextcloud post-install:

Go to domain.com and enter a new NextCloud user and password, along with the data and database details from above.

Enable memcache by editing /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php and add the following before the closing parentheses );:

'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'redis' => array(
'host' => 'localhost',
'port' => 6379,
'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',

# pihole


Install Docker and docker-compose:

sudo apt install docker.io docker-compose

Get the docker-compose.yml:

version: "3"
    container_name: pihole
    image: pihole/pihole:latest
      - "53:53/tcp"
      - "53:53/udp"
      - "67:67/udp"
      - "8088:80/tcp"
      TZ: 'Europe/London'
      WEBPASSWORD: 'your-password-here'
      - './etc-pihole:/etc/pihole'
      - './etc-dnsmasq.d:/etc/dnsmasq.d'
      - NET_ADMIN
    restart: unless-stopped

Then do

docker-compose up -d

If there are issues with port conflicts, may need to:

sudo systemctl disable --now systemd-resolved

However, this will break local DNS (internet access on the RPi itself), so then must edit /etc/resolv.conf as follows:

nameserver       # localhost
nameserver 192.168.x.y     # internal IP of RPi
options edns0 trust-ad     # not sure what this is?
search router.local        # router name/IP

Open ports in UFW:

sudo ufw allow from to any port 53
sudo ufw allow from to any port 8088 proto tcp
sudo ufw allow from to any port 67 proto udp

Set Router DNS to PiHole IP with as backup.

Then go to the router admin page http://box.local:8088/admin and go to Settings -> DNS and choose “Permit all Origins”.

Web admin console should be at http://localhost:8088/admin/.

# Transmission torrent client


Source 1, Source2.


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:transmissionbt/ppa
sudo apt install transmission-cli transmission-common transmission-daemon

Set up folders and dirs:

cd ~
mkdir transmission
cd transmission
mkdir downloads torrents

Set up user permissions:

# add self to transmission usergroup
sudo usermod -a -G debian-transmission your-username

sudo chgrp -R debian-transmission /home/your-username/transmission
sudo chmod -R 775 /home/your-username/transmission

Should be running at: http://localhost:9091/transmission/web/.


Service at /lib/systemd/system/transmission-daemon.service.

Need to stop the daemon before editing config. Don’t forget to start it again.

sudo systemctl stop transmission-daemon

Edit /etc/transmission-daemon/settings.json. Change download-dir, username, password, whitelist.


"watch-dir": "/home/pi/transmission/torrents",
"watch-dir-enabled": true

Open firewall

Check port in settings.json. Only needed if you want full discoverability.

sudo ufw allow 51413

Nginx proxy

Add to Nginx to properly forward Web UI (only if you want it at :80 port).

server {
    location /transmission/ {
        proxy_pass_header X-Transmission-Session-Id;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    location /rpc {

# General logging

Nginx logging

Add in server block:

access_log /var/log/nginx/nc.rdrn.me.access.log;
error_log /var/log/nginx/nc.rdrn.me.error.log;


Edit /etc/logrotate.d/nginx:

/var/log/nginx/*.log {
        rotate 12
        create 0640 www-data adm
                if [ -d /etc/logrotate.d/httpd-prerotate ]; then \
                        run-parts /etc/logrotate.d/httpd-prerotate; \
                fi \
                invoke-rc.d nginx rotate >/dev/null 2>&1

Nginx logs

less /var/log/nginx/books.rdrn.me.access.log

SSH logs

sudo journalctl _COMM=sshd | tail -100

UFW logs

sudo less /var/log/ufw.log

Transmission logs

sudo journalctl | grep transmission

# Only allow access from certain countries

I’m not currently using this. Source1. Source2. Source3.

Go to ip2location and download lists in CIDR format. Merge the lists.

It will be thousands of lines, and inserting with ufw allow ... takes too long.


cat cidr-allow.txt | grep -v ^# | while read subnet; do echo "-A ufw-before-input -p tcp --dport 443 -s $subnet -j ACCEPT" >> rules.out; done

Then paste these lines into /etc/ufw/before.rules before the COMMIT line.

Then run:

sudo ufw reload

# Mount encrypted drives

Manually decrypt drive:

sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda1 sda1_crypt

If that works, create a key so that it can be decrypted automatically:

dd if=/dev/random bs=32 count=1 of=/opt/backup_key
cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sda1 /opt/backup_key

Then edit /etc/crypttab:

sda1_crypt /dev/sda1 /opt/backup_key

Create mountpoint:

mkdir ~/backup

Edit /etc/fstab:

/dev/mapper/sda1_crypt /home/your-username/backup ext4 defaults,user,rw 0 0


mount ~/backup

NB: If there’s something wrong with your crypttab or fstab, it will probably fail on boot! If that happens, pull out the microSD card and comment out the offending lines somewhere else.

# Things to do on the LAN router

Set static IP. Port forwarding.