Note to readers: I’m mostly writing this so I don’t forget how I made these, in case I ever want to make another set.
Unrelated: how much would you pay for a pair of these?
Note to self: next time I do a project, take more photos and notes of the process.
Many years ago in another country I had beautiful floor-standing speakers, a classy big amplifier and even a well-looked after turntable. Several years of globe-trotting have left me relying on some horrible generic bluetooth speakers. The sound is horrible, you constantly have to re-dingle the Bluetooth, and the battery is always running out. I started lusting after a proper set of WiFi-connected speakers but a yearning for the smell of sawdust, along with an innate fear of Siri and her intelligent ilk, lead me to a better idea: make my own!
The basic idea: hook up a Raspberry Pi to a small amplifier and some speaker drivers. Initially, inspired by the Apple HomePod, I planned a single multi-directional smart speaker. There were a lot of questions:
- Which software to use?
- Which Raspberry Pi model?
- What kind of amp?
- What speaker drivers? Mid-range and tweeters, or just mid-range?
- What kind of crossover?
- What kind of box to put it all in?
I started Googling, and was inevitably brought to diyAudio.com, which was partly interesting, partly overwhelming, and mostly insane. Audio enthusiasts are known for their esoteric views on physics and reality, and apparently the DIY crowd are no different. After a brief trip down the wormhole of exotic capacitor materials, I decided to change tack. The signal-to-noise ratio (ahem) just isn’t high enough.
Instead I found this guy on YouTube: Kirby Meets Audio. Less wondering about 3rd order frequency roll-off; more power tools and sawdust. Inspired by one of his designs I changed tack: a stereo pair of speakers (rather than a single multi-directional), a single mid-range driver per speaker (so no cross-over design needed) and whichever speaker box size was most convenient (Q factors be damned). I went for a slightly shorter design than Kirby’s, aiming for about the profile of a hard back book, and came up with the following.
But I still needed to figure out the other bits. I um’d and ah’d about cheaper options, but quickly settled on getting a Raspberry Pi 4 and a HiFiBerry Amp2. The latter is am amazing bit of kit: a 60W stereo amplifier that simply plugs on top of the Raspberry Pi. It also solved the software problem: the same people make HiFiBerryOS, a bare-bones operating system that provides just the features I wanted: AirPlay and Spotify support, and a simple web interface for managing it. (I’m actually currently using Volumio, but only because its based on Debian, making it easier to install other things and mess around. As soon as I have a dedicated messing-around RPi, I’ll be back to HiFiBerryOS.)
Pretty soon I had three exciting parcels waiting to be unwrapped: the RPi, the amp, and the Dayton Audio PS95-8 3.5” speakers recommended by Kirby. I installed the OS, wired up the speakers and plugged everything in, and a second later was streaming from my phone! I was almost disappointed by how easy it was…
Finally convinced that it would work, I took my engineering drawings to the wood store and bought some wood. The most exciting bit: drilling ~80 mm holes (useful if I could remember) for the drivers. The most confounding part: using my limited skills and single clamp to glue everything together into a box.
Lots of messy glue, sanding (note to self: rent an electric sander next time) and a can of pink spray paint later, and I had a single bookshelf speaker! I decided this would be the left speaker. The right speaker would be a bit more complicated, because it would house the RPi and the amp. This meant its guts needed to be somehow accessible. The best solution I came up with was for the back panel to be removable with a screw in each corner. And so I unwillingly learned about another new thing: threaded inserts. These allowed me to use bolts on the back panel and easily remove it whenever I want to fiddle.
I also needed to find a way to snugly secure the RPi and amp inside the box. I found a design for a base, and got it 3D printed at my co-working space for €5! So that was the most futuristic part of the project. More sanding, more spray paint and soon there was only one thing left to do. A volume knob! I found a pretty piece of wood, got it laser cut (same place, same price, just as exciting!) and attached it to a KY-040 rotary encoder (basically a turning shaft that sends pulses to the RPi). This was the first time I had to write any code: a listener for knob-turns to change the volume in the appropriate direction.
And that’s it! They look lovely, sound amazing and work so easily, happily streaming straight from Spotify or any other app/computer. We quickly dubbed them Darcy, specifically referring to Colin Firth’s representation of Mr Darcy from 1995’s TV adaptation of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice.
This part is really just to help me remember some specifics.
- Computer: Raspberry Pi 4 2GB
- OS: Volumio/HifiBerryOS
- DAC/Amp: HifiBerry Amp2
- Power supply: Meanwell GS60A18-P1J (60W/18V)
- Power connector: Coaxial power connector, 5.5×2.1mm
- Drivers: Dayton Audio PS95-8
- Speaker wire: 0.75 mm speaker wire
- Base: universal Raspberry Pi base
- Volume encoder: KY-040 rotary encoder
- Volume knob: 10 mm thick grained wood, laser cut to 30 mm diameter circle
Body (16 mm MDF wood):
- 2 pieces 220x140 mm (front and back)
- 2 pieces 220x108 mm (sides)
- 2 pieces 108x108 (top and bottom)
- 74 mm hole cutter for driver hole (~76 mm would be better)
- countersink (back bolts and volume knob hole)
- 2 mm pilot holes for self-tapping screws
- 4.5 mm for back bolts
- 5 mm for power connector, speaker wires
- 6 mm for volume knob and threaded inserts
- 3.9x16 self-tapping (DIN7981) for drivers (4 each)
- 3.5x13 self-tapping (DIN7981) for Raspberry Pi base
- 4x25 bolts (DIN965) for back panel
- M4x10mm threaded inserts
Steps for ‘passive’ (RPi/amp-less) speaker (this is the left speaker in my stereo setup):
- Buy MDF wood cut to size.
- Drill driver hole in front panel, file to make bigger as necessary.
- Drill a ~5 mm hole in the back panel for speaker wire.
- Use wood glue and clamps to attach sides one-by-one (side, then top, then other side, then bottom).
- With the back still open, bevel all corners and edges, sand all over (especially where wood connetcs).
- Spray paint all over in beautiful millennial pink (back panel separately).
- Solder speaker wire to the driver terminals (pay attention to wire colors).
- Slot the speakers in, drill pilot holes and screw.
- Feed the speaker wire through the back panel hole.
- Glue the back panel into place.
Steps for ‘active’ speaker (with RPi and amp):
- Do up to 8 from above.
- Drill a hole in the front panel for the volume knob. Counter sink inside to make space for rotary encoder. Connect with long headers.
- Add an extra hole in the back panel to fit power connector.
- Drill 6mm holes 10mm deep in four back corners of glued box (with back panel still loose).
- Screw in threaded inserts until flush.
- Line up back panel and drill 4.5 mm holes for bolts, countersink.
- Check that above works!
- Drill 5-6 mm hole in wooden volume knob and use some glue to fasten to sticking-out rotary encoder.
- Connect Amp2 to RPi and both to 3D-printed base. Screw to back panel.
- Connect power, volume knob and both speaker drivers to Amp and RPi terminals.
- Power it up and make sure everything works!
- Screw it closed and enjoy! :)