Get hibernate working with LUKS

As with many of my blog posts, sharing this to get it out of my notes, and on the off-chance that it proves useful to future-me or anyone else.

Hibernate doesn’t work on Ubuntu by default with a LUKS-encrypted drive, and it takes some work to get it going… This is mostly because LVM introduces several layers of obfuscation between the physical drive and partitions (that I’ve been playing with since I was 14) and the mounted decrypted volume.

# Install Ubuntu

  1. Make sure BIOS is set to UEFI (so install will default to GPT not MBR).
  2. Don’t enable SecureBoot, it breaks hibernate.
  3. Install with default Ubuntu settings, encryption enabled.

# Resize swap partition

We want a bigger swap partition, so that hibernate can work, and because I have a big hard drive and swap is great.

Source: Resizing LVM-on-LUKS

Ubuntu by default installs with the partition structure below. We want to make vgubuntu-root smaller so that we can make vgubuntu-swap_1 bigger. So we don’t need to resize the crypt, the LUKS volume or the physical partition!

nvme0n1               259:0    0 931.5G  0 disk
├─nvme0n1p1           259:1    0   512M  0 part  /boot/efi
├─nvme0n1p2           259:2    0   732M  0 part  /boot
└─nvme0n1p3           259:3    0 930.3G  0 part
  └─nvme0n1p3_crypt   253:0    0 930.3G  0 crypt
    ├─vgubuntu-root   253:1    0 909.3G  0 lvm   /
    └─vgubuntu-swap_1 253:2    0    21G  0 lvm   [SWAP]

Boot from Ubuntu live media. Open a root terminal session:

sudo su -

Decrypt the LUKS volume:

cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/nvme0n1p3 nvme0n1p3_crypt

Resize the root and swap volumes:

lvresize -L -20G --resizefs /dev/vgubuntu/root
lvresize -l +20G --resizefs /dev/vgubuntu/swap_1

Check that all went well

e2fsck -f /dev/vgubuntu/root

# Enable deep sleep

Source: Enable deep sleep

Suspend, then wake and type: journalctl | grep "PM: suspend" | tail -2. If it returns suspend entry (s2idle) then need to change to type. cat /sys/power/mem_sleep will return [s2idle] deep.

Temporary fix: sudo echo deep > /sys/power/mem_sleep. And cat should return s2idle [deep]. Then suspend, then wake, check journalctl again and it should say suspend entry (dep).

Then edit bootloader config at /etc/default/grub with the default sleep parameter:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash mem_sleep_default=deep"

Then rebuild grub config: sudo update-grub.

# Enable hibernate

Source: Enable hibernate

Check the path to the swap partition: cat /etc/fstab | grep swap:

dev/mapper/vgubuntu-swap_1 none            swap    sw              0       0

Edit /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/resume:


Edit /etc/default/grub:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash resume=/dev/mapper/vgubuntu-swap_1"

Then update configs:

sudo update-initramfs -u -k all
sudo update-grub

# Use keyfile for LUKS

Source: Use a keyfile (this source just a reference, some stuff wrong).

Note: this process makes the encryption close to useless for an even slightly switched-on attacker (including anyone who’s read this).

Can consider using —keyfile-offset in cryptsetup and in /etc/crypttab for some security through obscurity (not implemented below). Sources: cryptsetup ref, crypttab ref.

Create a keyfile and place it on /boot and make it read-only to root:

sudo dd if=/dev/urandom of=/boot/keyfile bs=1024 count=4
sudo chmod 0400 /boot/keyfile

Add the key to LUKS:

sudo cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/nvme0n1p3 /boot/keyfile

Add the keyfile to /etc/crypttab. Shouldn’t need to change /etc/fstab.

# from
nvme0n1p3_crypt UUID=... none           luks,discard
# to
nvme0n1p3_crypt UUID=... /boot/keyfile  luks,discard

Now need to tell initramfs how to find the keyfile. Edit /etc/cryptsetup-initramfs/conf-hook:


Then update:

update-initramfs -c -k
# or only update the latest to not break everything!

# Fix broken initramfs

(Because the above process is relatively likely to go wrong.) Source: Fix broken initramfs

Open a root terminal: sudo su -. Make sure to use the exact partition paths that crypttab, fstab etc use, otherwise things will break more.

cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/nvme0n1p3 nvme0n1p3_crypt
vgchange -ay
mount /dev/vgubuntu/root /mnt  # might also be /dev/mapper/vgubuntu-root
mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot
mount -t proc proc /mnt/proc
mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
mount -t sysfs sys /mnt/sys  # otherwise will get errors later!

Enter the partition and rebuild the initramfs:

chroot /mnt
update-initramfs -c -k all

When done, close LUKS vg and the crypt:

vgchange -a n vgubuntu
cryptsetup close nvme0n1p3_crypt

# Sleep then hibernate

Source: sleep-then-hibernate

Gnome tweaks should be set to suspend on close lid. None of settings, gnome-tweaks, dconf-editor or logind.conf could mae power button hibernate. Which of these has priority?

Edit /etc/systemd/sleep.conf:


Test it:

sudo systemctl suspend-then-hibernate

If it works, change lid close action in /etc/systemd/logind.conf:


Then restart the service:

sudo systemctl restart systemd-logind.service